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AIDS first started in the early 1970’s. It began in the sub-Saharan region of Africa, mainly Swaziland. AIDS was started by a chimpanzee native to West Africa. They were hunted, and the hunters would get infected from exposure to the chimpanzee’s blood. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The viruses that cause AIDS are HIV type 1 and HIV type 2. HIV types 1 and 2 are retro viruses. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV attack two types of WBC, T lymphocytes and macrographs. T lymphocytes are also known as T cells. They play a very important part in cell mediated immunity. CD4 lymphocytes, Cluster of Differentiation four also get infected because they assist the T lymphocytes. When the CD4 lymphocytes get infected, the body stops making B lymphocytes that have a large job in humoral immune response. HIV attaches to the CD4 molecules on the infected T lymphocyte. Macrographs are WBC with thin tissues. They are infected the same way as the T lymphocytes. The T lymphocytes and macrographs infect other WBC as they continue to multiply. While infected, the cells can no longer fight germs and diseases properly. After ten years of having HIV, the immune system will be fully weakened. A person is diagnosed of having AIDS if they have more than two hundred CD4 cells per micro liter of blood or if HIV antibodies are found in your blood. Tests for HIV type 1 became available in 1985. Tests for HIV type 2 became available in 1992. When the immune system is completely weakened, any disease, malignancy, or neurological disorder can take control, and kill the infected person. Symptoms of AIDS may last for a week of two. Some of the symptoms include mouth infections, diarrhea, fever, weight loss, weakness, chills, tiredness, memory loss, yeast infections, and swollen lymph nodes. More serious symptoms are encephalitis, meningitis, retinitis, pnuemocystis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, Pneumocystis carnii pneo, and esophagitis. Skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tumors may occur too.The three main drugs taken for AIDS are AZT, DDI, and 3TC. All of them may cause fatal side effects. 3TC is a nucleoside enzyme. A nucleoside enzyme blocks an enzyme which HIV needs to replicate. DDI, another drug for AIDS, is also known as dideoxyinosine or didanosine. DDI takes part of antiretroviral therapy. Antiretroviral therapy is the slowing down of HIV. The third major drug taken is AZT. AZT blocks HIV from growing in T lymphocytes. Thymus lymphocytes are also known as T cells, or T helper cells. They are the most important part of cell mediated immunity.
AIDS is contagious, and is spread by sharing hypodermic needles, and infected blood donation. Many people also catch HIV from un-cleaned dentist tools, used in infected people’s mouths. It can also be spread from a mother to her unborn child (fetus). HIV does not survive for more than forty-five seconds outside the human body so AIDS cannot spread by sharing food utensils with an infected person.
•A person with AIDS is called HIV positive.
•By 2009, sixty million people had AIDS.
•AIDS was discovered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
•AIDS is rated one of the top ten most deadly diseases.
•Most people get AIDS in between the ages thirteen and twenty.
•There was a case of AIDS where the HIV positive person was cured.
•Student Encyclopedia, Volume : A, pages 48,49,50
•The World Book Student Discovery Encyclopedia, Volume: A , pages 36,37
•The New Book of Knowledge, Volume: A , page 100b
Article posted February 24, 2011 at 11:27 AM •
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